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How Internet works globally and Why Internet is Free

This time in india people can live sometime without fundamental services but tough to live without internet . Here , there , everywhere we see the importance of internet . At home , At office , At bus stand , railway station , anywhere people need internet .

Internet is a set of protocols , made globally . Internet is free to use for everyone , everywhere But we purchase the data plans to use internet . I hope , you will understand this reason after reading this post completely . We can say , Internet is ubiquitous to access .

We all know about , how broad the internet is , but it is more deeper network that we look around us .

How internet works -

What really happens when a Computer user visits the .

How Internet works

We can easily understand the process of overall internet working using some straight steps - 

1. Office or Home Device -

We use computer devices , mobile phones , tablet devices any time to communicate through internet . These may be at homes , at office or anywhere at public places .

Suppose , An office uses a group of computers and a paticular computer is browsing the website and other computer is browsing any other website .

How Internet works

Now the question arises , what is the process that connected my office computer to the google server that is in different country , America .

The first thing to know all about this process is IP Address .

2. IP -

Every server , every computer , every device that is accessing the internet has an IP address . IP stands for internet protocol . Ip address is same as the address to our homes for postal services . IP is of two types IPv4 and IPv6 .

Basically we use IPv4 connection . IP address is like but it does not sense for human being so we need an domain name like .

Okay it was about IP and the next term is ISP where our data travels .

3. ISP -

ISP stands for Internet service providers .We purchase our mobile data plans or broadband connections from the ISP's and they take the specific charges for servicing the data delivery from our computer to destination computer . There are many ISP are working in the market and we can distinguish them as Tier 1, Tier 2 , Tier 3 ISP companies .

How Internet works

Tier 1 ISP companies work globally to work on the physical level like for connecting the various countries through Optical Fibre Cables . We may amaze to know that internet is a net of optical fiber cables . In the ocean , A large number of cablesis the reason for transferring our data to various country destination computer or server .

Verizon , AT&T etc are the Tier 1 companies .

Tier 2 ISP companies basically work inside the countries at the physical level to work on spreading the optical fibre cables . Tier 2 companies are responsible to transmit data at root level from the PC . Tier 2 companies provide services of data transmission and take the fee from internet users for the maintainence of fibre cables .

Airtel , Vodafone , BSNL ,MTNL , Reliance , MTS are the Tier 2 companies .

ISP's do the one time investment in spreading the Optical Fibre Cables and handle the maintenance later time to time , because these cables have the lifetime almost 25 years . This was the only reason that Reliance Jio offered free Internet to everyone with high speed because they invested before in the Optical Fibre Cables network .

We also say Submarine cables to these Optical fibre cables in the ocean . If you want to see the real map of submarine cables across the world , Visit the website .

Okay come to the next point of where our data goes on .

4. DNS -

DNS stands for Domain Name System . ISP takes help from DNS to identify the IP address for searched destination domain name like . DNS's  contains the entry for each domain name IP address and after identifying the destination IP address data travels across the optical fibre cables to reach the destination computer .

Let's see how data travels across the cables and Why 2G , 3G , 4G networks devices get the different internet speeds .

5. ISP offers different data plans -

ISP's like Airtel , Bsnl , Vodafone etc have the different data plans for the customers . For 2G customers Airtel offers 1GB/Month internet at 97 INR and for 3G customers Airtel offres 1GB/Day internet at 400 INR . We can compare the internet speed for data plans users .

ISP companies prefer first the shortest path of data travelling across the optical fibre cables for 4G users data delivery from source to destination computer .

ISP companies give second priority for 3G , and then 2G customers  to choose the data delivery path from source to destination computer through physical cables .

Now take the next level step of data travelling over internet .

6. Reach to destination Country ISP -

Requsting data or sent data from my computer arrives at the destination computer ISP service .
And save the sender IP and associated domain name in the DNS servers .

7. Destination Server Computer -

Now destination country ISP delivers the data packets to the reciever destination server where is hosted .

8. Response -

Now finally the responds for the searched information .

Conclusion - 

These above described steps are the must points for between the communication from any internet connected two devices overall .

If you are searching the from your computer or mobile phone , all the above steps play the vital role while using the Internet .


  1. Nice article sir

  2. Thanks for sharing good job . keep it up.


  3. really a nice article on "How Internet works globally and Why Internet is Free"

    Thank you

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  4. Informative article .