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What is Cryptography and encryption

Crytography is a technology to encrypt data.  We see in the computer systems,  encryption is the root key of security scenario. 

Encryption can be also said,  " hiding of data " .

Cryptography depends basically on two types of keys public key and private key encryption.
Public and private keys are like passwords.  The keys can be  attached directly with the files publicly or can be asked individually. 

In older times,  cryptography was also used by leonardo da vinci to write the book in the mirror image,  that was possible to read with a mirror as the key .

In defence services,  government organisations and other security services mostly use the encryption in transferring the important files with security issues. They also transfer the files by attaching other files . 

To understand encryption easily in real life,  we can take the below example -
If a person wants to write the words
" Hello"
But he writes -
H +2 -> J
E+2 -> G
L+2 -> N
L+2 -> N
O+2 -> Q

So no one other can understand what is written . Simply he slided all the characters by two characters means he encrypted this data. 
All the encrypted data can be reviewed by decryption.